Chapter 14 (d)

Documentation 

In "The second Part of King Henry the Fourth" (ii, 2, 119), the Prince reads a letter from John Falstaff. First he reads 
his name and then comments, "Euery man must know that, as oft as hee hath occasion to name himselfe." Again he 
comments, "the answer is as ready as a borrowed cap." He continues to read it and, for no sensible purpose, most of 
the words are set in italic type (but not in the 1600 Quarto):

--Sir Iohn Falstaffe, Knight, to the Sonne of the King, neerest his Father, Harrie Prince of Wales, greeting.
Poin. Why this is a certificate.
Prin. Peace.
I will imitate the honourable Romaines in breuitie.
Poin. Sure he meanes breuity in breath: short-winded.
I commend me to thee, I commend thee, and I leaue thee. Bee not too familiar with Pointz, for hee misuses thy 
Fauours so much,

Ciphertext is:
S I R I O H N F A L S T A F F E K N I G H T T O T H E S O N N E O F T H E K I N G N E E R E S T H I S F A T H E 
R H A R R I E P R I N C E O F V A L E S G R E E T I N G V H Y T H I S I S A C E R T I F I C A T E P E A C E I V I L 
L I M I T A T E T H E H O N O V R A B L E R O M A I N E S I N B R E V I T I E S V R E H E M E A N E S B R E V I 
T Y I N B R E A T H S H O R T V I N D E D I C O M M E N D M E T O T H E E I C O M M E N D T H E E A N D I L 
E A V E T H E E B E E N O T T O O F A M I L I A R V I T H P O I N T F O R H E E M I S V S E S T H Y F A V O V R 
S S O M V C H

Ciphertext reversed is:

H C V M O S S R V O V A F Y H T S E S V S I M E E H R O F T N I O P H T I V R A I L I M A F O O T T O N E E B E 
E H T E V A E L I D N A E E H T D N E M M O C I E E H T O T E M D N E M M O C I D E D N I V T R O H S H T 
A E R B N I Y T I V E R B S E N A E M E H E R V S E I T I V E R B N I S E N I A M O R E L B A R V O N O H E H T 
E T A T I M I L L I V I E C A E P E T A C I F I T R E C A S I S I H T Y H V G N I T E E R G S E L A V F O E C N I R 
P E I R R A H R E H T A F S I H T S E R E E N G N I K E H T F O E N N O S E H T O T T H G I N K E F F A T S L A 
F N H O I R I S

Plaintext, +4 is:

M G C Q S A A Y C S C E K D M B A I A C A N Q I I M Y S K B R N S T M B N C Y E N P N Q E K S S B B S R I I F I 
I M B I C E I P N H R E I I M B H R I Q Q S G N I I M B S B I Q H R I Q Q S G N H I H R N C B Y S M A M B E I Y F 
R N D B N C I Y F A I R E I Q I M I Y C A I N B N C I Y F R N A I R N E Q S Y I P F E Y C S R S M I M B I B E B N 
Q N P P N C N I G E I T I B E G N K N B Y I G E A N A N M B D M C L R N B I I Y L A I P E C K S I G R N Y T I N 
Y Y E M Y I M B E K A N M B A I Y I I R L R N O I M B K S I R R S A I M B S B B M L N R O I K K E B A P E K R M 
S N Y N A

* * *

In the second verse of "The Rape of Lucrece," on the first page, the word "name" appears as the third word of the 
first line. Reading on, we find (v. 2, ln. 6):

VVhere mortal stars as bright as heauens Beauties,
VVith pure aspects did him peculiar dueties.

Ciphertext is:
V H E R E M O R T A L S T A R S A S B R I G H T A S H E A V E N S B E A V T I E S V I T H P V R E A S P E C T S 
D I D H I M P E C V L I A R D V E T I E S

Ciphertext reversed is:

S E I T E V D R A I L V C E P M I H D I D S T C E P S A E R V P H T I V S E I T V A E B S N E V A E H S A T H G I 
R B S A S R A T S L A T R O M E R E H V

Plaintext, +4 is:

A I N B I C H Y E N P C G I T Q N M H N H A B G I T A E I Y C T M B N C A I N B C E I F A R I C E I M A E B M 
L N Y F A E A Y E B A P E B Y S Q I Y I M C

* * *

What should we expect when the word "Cipher" appears in the open text, as in this quotation from "Measure for 
Measure" (ii, 2, 41):

Mine were the verie Cipher of a Function
To fine the faults, whose fine stands in record,
And let goe by the Actor.

Let us read on for ten lines to this passage:

Isab. . .And neither heauen, nor man grieue at the mercy.
Ang. I will not doe't.
Isab. But can you if you would?
Ang. Looke what I will not, that I cannot doe.
Isab. But might you doe't and do the world no wrong

Ciphertext is:
A N D N E I T H E R H E A V E N N O R M A N G R I E V E A T T H E M E R C Y I V I L L N O T D O E T B V T C 
A N Y O V I F Y O V V O V L D L O O K E V H A T I V I L L N O T T H A T I C A N N O T D O E B V T M I G H T 
Y O V D O E T A N D D O E T H E V O R L D N O V R O N G

Plaintext, +4 is:

E R H R I N B M I Y M I E C I R R S Y Q E R L Y N I C I E B B M I Q I Y G D N C N P P R S B H S I B F C B G E R D 
S C N K D S C C S C P H P S S O I C M E B N C N P P R S B B M E B N G E R R S B H S I F C B Q N L M B D S C H 
S I B E R H H S I B M I C S Y P H R S C Y S R L

Plaintext, +4 reversed is:

L R S Y C S R H P Y S C I M B I S H H R E B I S H C S D B M L N Q B C F I S H B S R R E G N B E M B B S R P P N 
C N B E M C I O S S P H P C S C C S D K N C S D R E G B C F B I S H B S R P P N C N D G Y I Q I M B B E I C I N 
Y L R E Q Y S R R I C E I M Y I M B N I R H R E

* * *

At another point, in the 1623 Shakespeare Folio, the word "Cypher" again appears; this is in the open text of "The 
Winters Tale" (i, 2, 7):

And therefore, like a Cypher (Yet standing in rich place) I multiply With one . . .

Six lines afterward, we read:

Pol. Sir, that's to morrow:
I am question'd by my feares, of what may chance,
Or breed vpon our absence, that may blow
No sneaping Winds at home, to make vs say,
This is put forth too truly: besides, I haue stay'd
To tyre your Royaltie.
Leo. We are tougher (Brother)

Ciphertext is:
S I R T H A T S T O M O R R O V I A M Q V E S T I O N D B Y M Y F E A R E S O F V H A T M A Y C H A N C E O 
R B R E E D V P O N O V R A B S E N C E T H A T M A Y B L O V N O S N E A P I N G V I N D S A T H O M E T 
O M A K E V S S A Y T H I S I S P V T F O R T H T O O T R V L Y B E S I D E S I H A V E S T A Y D T O T Y R E Y 
O V R R O Y A L T I E V E A R E T O V G H E R B R O T H E R

Plaintext, +4 is:

A N Y B M E B A B S Q S Y Y S C N E Q V C I A B N S R H F D Q D K I E Y I A S K C M E B Q E D G M E R G I S Y 
F Y I I H C T S R S C Y E F A I R G I B M E B Q E D F P S C R S A R I E T N R L C N R H A E B M S Q I B S Q E O I 
C A A E D B M N A N A T C B K S Y B M B S S B Y C P D F I A N H I A N M E C I A B E D H B S B D Y I D S C Y Y 
S D E P B N I C I E Y I B S C L M I Y F Y S B M I Y

Plaintext reversed is:

Y I M B S Y F Y I M L C S B I Y E I C I N B P E D S Y Y C S D I Y D B S B H D E B A I C E M N A I H N A I F D P C 
Y B S S B M B Y S K B C T A N A N M B D E A A C I O E Q S B I Q S M B E A H R N C L R N T E I R A S R C S P F 
D E Q B E M B I G R I A F E Y C S R S T C H I I Y F Y S I G R E M G D E Q B E M C K S A I Y E I K D Q D F H R S 
N B A I C V Q E N C S Y Y S Q S B A B E M B Y N A

* * *

"FBacon" may be found in the ciphertext, in "The Two Noble Kinsmen," (iv, 3, 36):

Dau. . .and there shall we be put in a Caldron of
Lead, and Vsurers grease, amongst a whole million of
Cutpurses, and there boyle like a Gamon of Bacon
That will never be enough.
Doct. How her braine coynes?

Ciphertext is:
A N D T H E R E B O Y L E L I K E A G A M O N O F B A C O N T H A T V I L L N E V E R B E E N O V G H H O 
V H E R B R A I N E C O Y N E S

Plaintext, +4 is:

E R H B M I Y I F S D P I P N O I E L E Q S R S K F E G S R B M E B C N P P R I C I Y F I I R S C L M M S C M I Y F 
Y E N R I G S D R I A

Plaintext, alternate letters:

R B I I S P P O E E S S F G R M B N P I I F I S L M C I F E R G D I

* * *

Last, in this "cipher" sequence, we come to "The Tragedie of Othello the Moore of Venice" (ii, 3, 248). Only four lines 
need be shown.

Othe. . .Thy honestie, and loue doth mince this matter,
Making it light to Cassio: Cassio I love thee,
But never more be officer of mine.
Looke if my gentle Loue be not rais'd vp:

Ciphertext is:
T H Y H O N E S T I E A N D L O V E D O T H M I N C E T H I S M A T T E R M A K I N G I T L I G H T T O C A S 
S I O C A S S I O I L O V E T H E E B V T N E V E R M O R E B E O F F I C E R O F M I N E L O O K E I F M Y G E 
N T L E L O V E B E N O T R A I S D V P

Plaintext +4 is:

B M D M S R I A B N I E R H P S C I H S B M Q N R G I B M N A Q E B B I Y Q E O N R L N B P N L M B B S G E A 
A N S G E A A N S N P S C I B M I I F C B R I C I Y Q S Y I F I S K K N G I Y S K Q N R I P S S O I N K Q D L I R B 
P I P S C I F I R S B Y E N A H C T

Plaintext, +4 reversed:

T C H A N E Y B S R I F I C S P I P B R I L D Q K N I O S S P I R N Q K S Y I G N K K S I F I Y S Q Y I C I R B C F I I 
M B I C S P N S N A A E G S N A A E G S B B M L N P B N L R N O E Q Y I B B E Q A N M B I G R N Q M B S H I 
C S P H R E I N B A I R S M D M B

Well! Look at that last "word." That's not the way to spell "Shakespeare," is it? But Shakespeare the business man 
spelled it in six different ways, using dreadfully crude penmanship. Critics have marveled at this, considering that 
the man is alleged to have written nearly a million words. (A computer count by Brigham Young University of the 
entire Works brings it to 983,779).

Thus we have seen, forty-one times, a most appropriate word coupled in plaintext with Francis Bacon's 
name--cipher. We may add to that my original decryption of the Sonnet Dedication. . .CYPPHRS BEKAAN BACON.

* * *

A word similar to Bacon's surname is "beacon," and, as we have seen, that was once his forebear's name. Here are 
other contemporary ways to spell that: "beacen, becen, becun, baecen, bikene, bekne, bekene, beeken, beken, bekin, 
beakon."

Yes, Shakespeare did, in the ciphertext, spell it as "Beacon" in "Troylus and Cressida" (ii, 2, 16), but notice how it is 
written in the plaintext and just after "who knowes what followes":

Hect. . . . More ready to cry out, who knowes what followes
Then Hector is: the wound of peace is surety,
Surety secure: but modest Doubt is cal'd
The Beacon of the wise: the tent that searches
To th'bottome of the worst. Let Helen go,
Since the first sword was drawne about this question,

Ciphertext is:
T H E N H E C T O R I S T H E V O V N D O F P E A C E I S S V R E T Y S V R E T Y S E C V R E B V T M O D E S T 
D O V B T I S C A L D T H E B E A C O N O F T H E V I S E T H E T E N T T H A T S E A R C H E S T O T H E B O 
T T O M E O F T H E V O R S T L E T H E L E N G O S I N C E T H E F I R S T S V O R D V A S D R A V N E A B O 
V T T H I S Q V E S T I O N

Plaintext is:

B M I R M I G B S Y N A B M I C S C R H S K T I E G I N A A C Y I B D A C Y I B D A I G C Y I F C B Q S H I A B H 
S C F B N A G E P H B M I F I E G S R S K B M I C N A I B M I B I R B B M E B A I E Y G M I A B S B M I F S B B S 
Q I S K B M I C S Y A B P I B M I P I R L S A N R G I B M I K N Y A B A C S Y H C E A H Y E C R I E F S C B B M N 
A V C I A B N S R

Plaintext reversed is:

R S N B A I C V A N M B B C S F E I R C E Y H A E C H Y S C A B A Y N K I M B I G R N A S L R I P I M B I P B A 
Y S C I M B K S I Q S B B S F I M B S B A I M G Y E I A B E M B B R I B I M B I A N C I M B K S R S G E I F I M B H 
P E G A N B F C S H B A I H S Q B C F I Y C G I A D B I Y C A D B I Y C A A N I G E I T K S H R C S C I M B A N 
Y S B G I M R I M B

The second "B I Y C A A N" shown depends for its existence upon the word "surety" in the ciphertext. However in 
the "Famous Historie of Troylus and Cressida" (in the 1609 quarto), the word is not "surety" but "surely" which 
makes a great deal more sense. But the name would then have been "P I Y C A A N," which would not do. Thus this 
1623 repair of the earlier ciphertext.

* * *

Almost the same phrase is repeated in "The second Part of Henry the Sixt." The first one (i, 4, 29) is uttered by 
Bullingbrooke:

Ciphertext is:
V H A T F A T E S A V A I T T H E D V K E O F S V F F O L K E

Plaintext, +4 is:

C M E B K E B I A E C E N B B M I H C O I S K A C K K S P O I

Thirty-four lines later, The Duke of York adds the second (i, 4, 63) almost identical phrase:

Ciphertext is:
T E L L M E V H A T F A T E A V A I T S T H E D V K E O F S V F F O L K E

Plaintext, +4 is:

B I P P Q I C M E B K E B I E C E N B A B M I H C O I S K A C K K S P O I

* * *

The author of the 1623 edition of Shake-speare's works openly used his own name on five occasions--Bacon. We have 
been seeking signals; a signature writ plainly like this beckons beguilingly. We find it twice in "The First Part of King 
Henry the Fourth" (ii, 1, 88):

Enter Travellers.

Tra. Come Neighbors: the boy shall leade our Horses downe thehill: Wee'l walke a-foot a while, and ease our Legges.
Theeves. Stay.
Tra. Iesu blesse vs.
Fal. Strike down with them, cut the villains throats; a whorson Caterpillars: Bacon-fed Knaues, they hate vs youth; 
owne with them, fleece them.
Tra. O, we are vndone, both we and ours for ever.
Fal. Hang ye gorbellied knaues, are you vndone? No ye Fat Chuffes, I would your store were heere. On Bacons, on, 
what ye knaues?

Let us select the capitalized words, beginning with "Iesu" and string them together, as has been rewarding while 
studying Shakespeare's epitaph.

The Ciphertext is:
I E S V S T R I K E C A T E R P I L L A R S B A C O N F E D K N A V E S O H A N G N O F A T C H V F F E S I O N 
B A C O N S

The reversed ciphertext is:

S N O C A B N O I S E F F V H C T A F O N G N A H O S E V A N K D E F N O C A B S R A L L I P R E T A C E K I 
R T S V S E I

The plaintext is:

A R S G E F R S N A I K K C M G B E K S R L R E M S A I C E R O H I K R S G E F A Y E P P N T Y I B E G I O N Y 
B A C A I N

Just before the last singular spelling of Bacon's name, we see "BEGOIN." Can we accept that too? Or, if not, why not? 
We can find the same plaintext, using only the first words of each speech, to read "BACAIN" again.

* * *

We were working on a page of "The First Part of King Henry the Fourth" in which the opentext name "Bacon" 
appeared twice. Let us turn to the previous page (ii, 1, 26) where we will see it repeated: "I have a Gammon of 
Bacon, and two razes of Ginger, to be delivered as farre as Charing-crosse. The Turkies in my Pannier are quite 
starved."

"Bacon" having been dragged into the dialogue, next some "Turkies" are plucked up and added to the menu. These 
Gammons and Turkies have a history going back to 1598 and the earliest quarto edition of the First Part of Henry IV. 
In our 1623 edition, "Gammon" and "Bacon" have been newly capitalized, and two words omitted from the beginning 
of the next sentence. Here is how Francis Bacon contrived to have his name and new rank injected into the later 
version:

1.Car. What Ostler, come away, and be hangd: come away.
2.Car. I haue a Gammon of Bacon, and two razes of Ginger, to be deliuered as farre as Charing-crosse.
1.Car. The Turkies in my Pannier are quite starued. What Ostler? A plague on thee, hast thou neuer an eye in thy 
head? Can'st not heare?

The ciphertext is:
I H A V E A G A M M O N O F B A C O N A N D T V O R A S E S O F G I N G E R T O B E D E L I V E R E D A S F 
A R R E A S C H A R I N G C R O S S E T H E T V R K I E S I N M Y P A N N I E R A R E Q V I T E S T A R V E D

The plaintext is:

N M E C I E L E Q Q S R S K F E G S R E R H B C S Y E A I A S K L N R L I Y B S F I H I P N C I Y I H E A K E Y Y I 
E A G M E Y N R L G Y S A A I B M I B C Y O N I A N R Q D T E R R N I Y E Y I V C N B I A B E Y C I H

Alternate letters are:

M C E E Q R K E S E H C Y A A K N L Y S I I N I I E K Y I A M Y R G S A B I C O I N Q T R N Y Y V N I B Y I

In the 1598 quarto, the words "Gods Bodie" preceded "The Turkies . . ." These original words were deleted in the 
1623 edition so as to produce the letters "SA" just preceding "BICOIN." "SA" referred to Bacons new (1621) title of 
Viscount St. Alban, after which he sometimes signed his name as "Francis S. A."

Just a little cutting and trimming to bring his identity up to date.

* * *

In "Loves Labour's Lost" (v, 2, 552), the "Clowne" enters and says, "I Pompey am." Berowne contradicts him: "You 
lie, you are not he." The clown repeats that he is "Pompey surnam'd the great"; this is probably a play upon the 
name of a 1595 drama by Kyd, "Pompey the Great, his faire Corneliaes Tragedy."

The clown continues with a four line verse; it is italicized and the last two lines are:

And travailing along this coast, I heere am come by chance,
And lay my Armes before the legs of this sweet Lasse of France.

This is comedy, but a question of identity has been raised:

The ciphertext is:
A N D T R A V A I L I N G A L O N G T H I S C O A S T I H E E R E A M C O M E B Y C H A N C E A N D L A Y 
M Y A R M E S B E F O R E T H E L E G S O F T H I S S V E E T L A S S E O F F R A N C E

The plaintext is:

E R H B Y E C E N P N R L E P S R L B M N A G S E A B N M I I Y I E Q G S Q I F D G M E R G I E R H P E D Q D 
E Y Q I A F I K S Y I B M I P I L A S K B M N A A C I I B P E A A I S K K Y E R G I

Plaintext reversed is:

I G R E Y K K S I A A E P B I I C A A N M B K S A L I P I M B I Y S K I F A I Q Y E D Q D E P H R E I G R E M G D 
F I Q S G Q E I Y I I M N B A E S G A N M B L R S P E L R N P N E C E Y B H R E

"France" and "by chance," appearing in the ciphertext, are serviceable indicators; they are pointers to this echoing 
anonym.

* * *

Quoting now from the 1634 Quarto of "The Two Noble Kinsmen" (v, 1, 122):

Yea him I doe not love, that tells close offices
The fowlest way, nor names concealments in
The boldest language, such a one I am,
And vow that lover never yet made sigh
Truer then I. O then most soft sweet goddesse
Give me the victory of this question,

The title-page says this was written by John Fletcher and William Shakespeare. Some critics say Shakespeare had no 
hand in it and some say he wrote the whole of it.

Nevertheless, we shall look for a "name" concealed in "The boldest language":

Ciphertext is:
G I V E M E T H E V I C T O R Y O F T H I S Q V E S T I O N

Ciphertext reversed is:

N O I T S E V Q S I H T F O Y R O T C I V E H T E M E V I G

Plaintext, +4 is:

R S N B A I C V A N M B K S D Y S B G N C I M B I Q I C N L

Likewise, at the very beginning of this play, another display of the name may be found in the first verse of "The 
Song."

* * *

The Sonnets are a rich source of cryptonyms for the signature of Sir Francis Bacon, once Chancellor of England, 
Baron Verulam and Viscount St. Alban. Let us explore Sonnet 34:

Lines 1 to 4 are as follows:

Why didst thou promise such a beautious day,
And make me travaile forth without my cloake,
To let bace cloudes ore-take me in my way,
Hiding thy brau'ry in their rotten smoke.

Ciphertext is:
V H Y D I D S T T H O V P R O M I S E S V C H A B E A V T I O V S D A Y A N D M A K E M E T R A V A I L E F 
O R T H V I T H O V T M Y C L O A K E T O L E T B A C E C L O V D E S O R E T A K E M E I N M Y V A Y H I D 
I N G T H Y B R A V R Y I N T H E I R R O T T E N S M O K E

Plaintext, +4 is:

C M D H N H A B B M S C T Y S Q N A I A C G M E F I E C B N S C A H E D E R H Q E O I Q I B Y E C E N P I K S 
Y B M C N B M S C B Q D G P S E O I B S P I B F E G I G P S C H I A S Y I B E O I Q I N R Q D C E D M N H N R L 
B M D F Y E C Y D N R B M I N Y Y S B B I R A Q S O I

Lines 9 to 12 are:

Nor can thy shame giue phisicke to my griefe,
Though thou repent, yet I have still the losse,
Th'offenders sorrow lends but weake reliefe
To him that beares the strong offenses losse.

Ciphertext is:
N O R C A N T H Y S H A M E G I V E P H I S I C K E T O M Y G R I E F E T H O V G H T H O V R E P E N T Y E 
T I H A V E S T I L L T H E L O S S E T H O F F E N D E R S S O R R O V L E N D S B V T V E A K E R E L I E F E T 
O H I M T H A T B E A R E S T H E S T R O N G O F F E N S E S L O S S E

Ciphertext reversed is:

E S S O L S E S N E F F O G N O R T S E H T S E R A E B T A H T M I H O T E F E I L E R E K A E V T V B S D N E 
L V O R R O S S R E D N E F F O H T E S S O L E H T L L I T S E V A H I T E Y T N E P E R V O H T H G V O H T E 
F E I R G Y M O T E K C I S I H P E V I G E M A H S Y H T N A C R O N

Plaintext, +4 is:

I A A S P A I A R I K K S L R S Y B A I M B A I Y E I F B E M B Q N M S B I K I N P I Y I O E I C B C F A H R I P C S 
Y Y S A A Y I H R I K K S M B I A A S P I M B P P N B A I C E M N B I D B R I T I Y C S M B M L C S M B I K I N Y 
L D Q S B I O G N A N M T I C N L I Q E M A D M B R E G Y S R

Here, following the noteworthy word "forth" at the beginning of the ciphertext (and next to "trauaile"), he declares 
his name in four places.

* * *

Meditate upon these four lines from Sonnet 59:

Oh that record could with a back-ward looke,
Even of five hundreth courses of the Sunne,
Show me your image in some antique booke,
Since minde at first in carrecter was done.

Ciphertext is:
S H O V M E Y O V R I M A G E I N S O M E A N T I Q V E B O O K E S I N C E M I N D E A T F I R S T I N C A R 
R E C T E R V A S D O N E

Ciphertext reversed is:

E N O D S A V R E T C E R R A C N I T S R I F T A E D N I M E C N I S E K O O B E V Q I T N A E M O S N I E G 
A M I R V O Y E M V O H S

Plaintext, +4 is:

I R S H A E C Y I B G I Y Y E G R N B A Y N K B E I H R N Q I G R N A I O S S F I C V N B R E I Q S A R N I L E Q 
N Y C S D I Q C S M A

Plaintext, alternate letters:

I S A C I G Y E R B Y K E H N I R A O S I V B E Q A N L Q Y S I C M

Notice that we have reversed the ciphertext in order to uncover these two examples. "With a back-ward looke," we 
have shown "his image in some antique booke."

"He simply reversed the cipher!" as Professor Moriarity once exclaimed triumphantly, while trying to outwit 
Sherlock Holmes.

* * *